A complex system is thereby characterised by its inter-dependencies, where as a complicated system is characterised by its layers.
Introduction to using structural analysis software for the analysis of simple structures/structural components.
Introduction to Surveying, Types of land surveys; Instruments, Topograhpic maps and its interpretation, Measurements and Errors; Units; Types of Errors; Precision and Accuracy; Error Propagation.
Concepts of GPS; GPS receivers; GPS positioning mode- point positioning & relative positioning (DGPS & RTK GPS); GPS accuracy and error sources, Applications of GPS.
Convenient graphical user interface (GUI) system dynamics software developed into user friendly versions by the 1990s and have been applied to diverse systems.
SD models solve the problem of simultaneity (mutual causation) by updating all variables in small time increments with positive and negative feedbacks and time delays structuring the interactions and control.